ACLS and Vasopressin

ACLS and Vasopressin

Vasopressin is a primary drug used in the pulseless arrest algorithm. In high concentrations, it raises blood pressure by inducing moderate vasoconstriction, and it has been shown to be more effective than epinephrine in asystolic cardiac arrest (Wenzel V, Krismer AC, Arntz HR, Sitter H, Stadlbauer KH, Lindner KH (January 2004). “A comparison of vasopressin and epinephrine for out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation”. N. Engl. J. Med. 350 (2): 105–13. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa025431. PMID 14711909.)

One major indication for vasopressin over epinephrine is its lower risk for adverse side effects when compared with epinephrine. With epinephrine, some studies have shown a risk of increased myocardial oxygen consumption and post arrest arrhythmias because of an increase in heart rate and contractility (beta 1 effects). Vasopressin also is thought to cause cerebral vessel dilation and theoretically increase cerebral perfusion.

Trivia: Another name for vasopressin is antidiuretic hormone (ADH).

Routes

Vasopressin may be given IV/IO or by endotracheal tube.

Dosing

40 units of vasopressin IV/IO push may be given to replace the first or second dose of epinephrine, and at this time, there is insufficient evidence for recommendation of a specific dose per the endotracheal tube.
In the ACLS pulseless arrest algorithm, vasopressin may replace the first or second dose of epinephrine.

Return to main ACLS Pharmacology page.

Comments

  1. Michael says

    Why is the 1st epinephrine given after the 2nd shock? If circumstances are right, say in a hospital or in the middle of transport, and an IV is already in place, why not give the epinephrine after the 1st shock?

    • says

      The algorithm is designed to start at the very beginning with no IV access and no drugs available. It is given after the 2nd shock of the algorithm so as to emphasize the CPR and shocks which are the only interventions that have been shown to improve survival to hospital discharge. This algorithm is not all inclusive and can be “tweaked” if the situation allows. The algorithm itself is generic and does not take into consideration many of the variables that can exist in a real code setting.
      AHA states that health care providers can tailor the sequence of events to the situation at hand. Very often, I have seen epinephrine given very early in a code when extra hands were available and an IV was already in place. If you only have two people available, the pushing of medications will not be of primary importance and will not take place before the 2nd shock because the two people will be performing other more critical interventions.

      Kind regards,
      Jeff

  2. Elizabeth Novotny says

    In the pre-course assessment for the AHA on-line it asks the question…in pulseless vtach a patient has received one dose of epinephrine and two shocks, the next medication to expect should be amiodarone. I do not understand why vasopressin is not the correct medication . Could you explain this to me? I cannot thank you enough for this course, and your help! It has been wonderful!
    Thank you and God bless,
    Elizabeth

    • says

      Epinephrine is given after the second shock. Any subsequent doses of epinephrine are given every 3 to 5 minutes. Epinephrine is basically on it’s own timetable after the initial dose.
      The first dose of Amiodarone is always given after the third shock. Any subsequent dose of amiodarone is given after the first dose has had adequate time to circulate. This usually occurs any time after the fourth shock, but always during CPR.

      Kind regards,
      Jeff

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes: <a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>